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Low-sodium, low-potassium and low-phosphorus dietLLow-sodium, low-potassium and low-phosphorus dietLow-sodium, low-potassium and low-phosphorus diet for transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z





Low-sodium, low-potassium and low-phosphorus diet2745.00000000000Low-sodium, low-potassium and low-phosphorus dietLow-sodium, low-potassium and low-phosphorus diet for transplantLEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<figure> <img alt="Teen girls making sandwiches" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/TTC_Trans_S2_8-6_PBR.jpg" /> </figure> <h2>What are sodium, potassium, and phosphorus?</h2><p>Sodium, potassium, and phosphorus are all minerals found in your food.</p><p>Sodium helps to control blood pressure. Too much sodium (salt) may result in fluid overload, high blood pressure, and extra work for your heart and kidneys.</p><p>Potassium helps keep your heart pumping and muscles working. Too much potassium can cause your heartbeat to slow down or even stop.</p><p>Phosphorus works to keep your bones strong and healthy. Too much phosphorus can cause your bones to become weak and brittle.</p><h2>General advice to reduce sodium, potassium, and phosphorus</h2><ul><li>You can use a small amount of salt when preparing and cooking food. The salt in most recipes can be cut in half without changing the final taste, but don’t add any salt to foods after they have been made.</li><li>Use herbs and spices to add flavour to your food. Avoid salt substitutes, though, because they contain potassium instead of sodium.</li><li>Make sure you eat more home-cooked meals. Fast foods, junk foods, and restaurant foods can be higher in sodium.</li><li>​To get an idea of the saltiness of a food, look for these words on the label:</li><ul><li>salt</li><li>sea salt</li><li>sodium</li><li>broth</li><li>brine</li><li>pickled</li><li>marinated</li><li>cured</li><li>smoked</li><li>monosodium glutamate (MSG).</li></ul><li>Milk and milk products are high in phosphorus. Eat as directed by your dietitian.</li><li>Use lots of water when cooking vegetables.</li></ul><p>Reading food labels can help you decide if a food is high in sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Ingredients are listed in order of weight, from the greatest to the smallest.</p><p>Some labels state the amount of sodium, potassium and phosphorus in a product. But remember, if sodium, potassium or phosphorus are not on the label, it does not mean the product does not contain any of these nutrients.</p><p>Always read product labels. Choose food and drink products that have the following amounts of sodium, potassium and phosphorus per serving.</p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th colspan="3">​Food labels: Nutrition Facts (one serving)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td> <strong>Mineral</strong></td><td> <strong>Amount</strong></td><td> <strong>% Daily Value</strong></td></tr><tr><td>Sodium</td><td>Less than 200 mg</td><td>8 % or less</td></tr><tr><td>Potassium</td><td>Less than 200 mg</td><td>6 % or less</td></tr><tr><td>Phosphorus</td><td>Less than 100 mg</td><td>10 % or less</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><h2>Low-sodium, low-potassium and low-phosphorus food choices</h2><h3>Vegetables</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th colspan="2">​Best choices</th><th colspan="2">Foods to avoid</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Alfalfa sprouts</td><td>Asparagus, 4 spears</td><td>Artichokes</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Bamboo shoots, canned</td><td>Bean sprouts</td><td>Bamboo shoots, fresh</td><td>Bok choi</td></tr><tr><td>Beets</td><td>Cabbage, red or green</td><td>Broccoli; rapini</td><td>Brussels sprouts</td></tr><tr><td>Carrots, cooked, canned or frozen</td><td>Cauliflower</td><td>Carrots, raw </td><td>Chinese cabbage</td></tr><tr><td>Celery, 1 stalk</td><td>Corn, canned or frozen</td><td>Endive (escarole)</td><td>Kale</td></tr><tr><td>Corn on the cob, 3" long ear</td><td>Cucumber</td><td>Mushrooms, fresh</td><td>Pickle</td></tr><tr><td>Eggplant, cooked</td><td>Lettuce</td><td>Eggplant, raw</td><td>Okra</td></tr><tr><td>Onion, green onion</td><td>Peppers, sweet or hot</td><td>Parsley</td><td>Parsnip</td></tr><tr><td>Potato, boiled or mashed (soaked first)</td><td>Radish</td><td>Potato, baked, fried, instant mash, chips; sweet potato (yam)</td><td>Pumpkin</td></tr><tr><td>Tomato, fresh, 1/2 medium</td><td>Tomato sauce (up to 45 mL or 3 tablespoons)</td><td>Tomato, canned or paste</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Turnip (rutabaga)</td><td>Watercress</td><td>Sauerkraut </td><td>Spinach</td></tr><tr><td>Zucchini</td><td></td><td>Squash (acorn, butternut, hubbard)</td><td>Water chestnuts</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><h3>Fruit</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th colspan="2">​Best choices</th><th>Foods to avoid</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Apple, 1 medium</td><td>Apple sauce</td><td>Apricot</td></tr><tr><td>Berries (blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries)</td><td>Cherries (limit to 10 medium)</td><td>Avocado</td></tr><tr><td>Figs, fresh, 2 large</td><td>Fruit cocktail</td><td>Banana</td></tr><tr><td>Grapes, green or red</td><td>Lemon or lime juice, 15 mL (1 tablespoon)</td><td>Dried fruit, including raisins, apricots, dates, currants, figs, prunes</td></tr><tr><td>Lychees, 10 medium</td><td>Grapefruit, 1/2 medium*</td><td>Kiwi</td></tr><tr><td>Mandarin orange, 1 medium</td><td>Mango, 1/2 medium</td><td>Melon (cantaloupe, Casaba melon, honeydew, musk)</td></tr><tr><td>Peach or pear, 1 medium or canned</td><td>Persimmon, 1 medium</td><td>Nectarine</td></tr><tr><td>Pineapple</td><td>Plum, 1 medium</td><td>Orange</td></tr><tr><td>Rhubarb, 1 cup</td><td>Tangerine, 1 medium</td><td>Papaya</td></tr><tr><td>Watermelon, 1 cup or slice (4 cm x 4 cm or 1" x 2.5")</td><td></td><td>Pomegranate</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><h3>Breads and cereals</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th colspan="2">​Best choices</th><th colspan="2">Foods to avoid</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Bread rolls, croissants, muffins made with white or light rye flour</td><td>Pita, tortilla, chapati, roti or papseco made with white or rice flour</td><td>Whole wheat, multigrain, pumpernickel, dark rye or corn bread, rolls, muffins or crackers </td><td>Pita, tortilla, chapati, roti or papseco made with whole wheat or corn flour</td></tr><tr><td>Crackers: unsalted white and light rye, such as soda crackers, cream crackers or water crackers </td><td>Melba toast, crisp pita, flat bread, rice cakes, rusks, zwieback</td><td>Crackers: salted, whole wheat, multigrain, dark rye or sandwich type crackers (such as Ritz Bits filled with cheese or peanut butter)</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>English muffins made with white flour </td><td>Pancakes made with white flour, 3 medium</td><td>Whole wheat English muffins, pancakes or waffles</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Waffles, 2 medium</td><td>Homemade biscuits, bread stuffing, coating, batter mixes</td><td>Commercial biscuits, bread stuffing, coating, batter mixes</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Cold cereal made with corn, puffed rice or puffed wheat (brands include Corn Flakes, Corn Pops, Frosted Flakes, Alphabits, Froot Loops, Sugar Crisp)</td><td>Hot cereal: cream of wheat, cream of rice, cornmeal</td><td>Bran, whole wheat or multigrain cereal (brands include Bran Flakes, Shreddies, Cheerios); granola</td><td>Hot cereal: oatmeal, instant oatmeal packs; multigrain cereal (brands include Red River, Bob's Red Mill)</td></tr><tr><td>Cookies, donuts, cakes (without chocolate or dried fruit)</td><td>White flour</td><td>Baked products containing bran, whole wheat flour, flax, bulgur, chocolate, molasses, dried fruit, nuts</td><td>Flour made from potato, soy, corn, dark rye or whole wheat; wheat germ; flax seed</td></tr><tr><td>White rice, white pasta or noodles</td><td>Homemade pasta dishes</td><td>Brown rice or whole wheat pasta or noodles</td><td>Canned pasta; instant rice or noodle dishes (brands include Rice-a-Roni, Lipton Side Dish, Kraft Dinner)</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><h3>Milk and milk alternatives</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>​Best choices</th><th>Foods to avoid</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Rice beverages (not calcium enriched)</td><td>Milk; drinks made with milk, yogurt or buttermilk</td></tr><tr><td>Non-dairy creamers (such as Coffee Rich, Coffee Mate)</td><td>Coconut, almond or soy milk</td></tr><tr><td>Custards and puddings made with non-dairy creamers</td><td>Custards, puddings or yogurts made with milk</td></tr><tr><td>Sherbet; sorbet from allowed fruit (see above); Rice Dream frozen dessert</td><td>Ice cream</td></tr><tr><td>Non-dairy whipped topping</td><td>Whipped cream, sour cream</td></tr><tr><td>Cream cheese, brie and soft goat cheese, 15-30 mL (1-2 tablespoons); grated Parmesan or romano cheese sprinkled on foods, other cheeses as discussed with your dietitian</td><td>Paneer, queso fresco, feta cheese, processed cheese slices and spreads (such as Cheese Whiz)</td></tr><tr><td>Clear soups, cream soups diluted with water</td><td>Soup made with milk or cream</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><h3>Meat and meat alternatives</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>​Best choices</th><th>Foods to avoid</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Fresh beef, pork, veal, poultry, lamb, goat <p>*If using kosher meats, soak them in water and do not use salt when cooking them.</p></td><td>Cured or smoked meat such as bacon, ham, lox, herring, dried beef, jerky, meat sticks</td></tr><tr><td></td><td>Luncheon meat such as cold cuts, corned beef, pastrami, sausage, hot dogs, salt pork</td></tr><tr><td>Tuna or salmon, bones removed, canned in water or oil (rinse in water before eating)</td><td>Organ meat such as liver, kidney, heart</td></tr><tr><td>Fresh fish (except those listed across)</td><td>Fish eggs (fish roe or caviar), smelt, carp, flounder, sardines, scallops, crab</td></tr><tr><td>Fish, chicken or veal coated with homemade breading or batter</td><td>Fish, chicken or veal with commercial breading or batter</td></tr><tr><td>Egg whites (or whole egg, as discussed with your dietitian)</td><td>Whole egg (limit)</td></tr><tr><td>Peanut butter (maximum 15 mL or 1 tablespoon a day)</td><td>Nuts; seeds</td></tr><tr><td>Soft tofu</td><td>Firm tofu</td></tr><tr><td>Beans, green or wax; green peas, snow peas</td><td>Baked beans; beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas (dry or canned)<br></td></tr></tbody></table><h3>Drinks</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>​Best choices</th><th>Foods to avoid</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Fruit drink* </td><td>Fruit juice</td></tr><tr><td>Fruit punch*</td><td>Tomato or vegetable juice</td></tr><tr><td>Cranberry juice cocktail</td><td>Fruit nectar</td></tr><tr><td>Lemonade</td><td>Sport drinks (such as Gatorade, Powerade); mineral water with more than 250 mg sodium a litre (sometimes shown as 250 ppm - parts per million)</td></tr><tr><td>Non-cola soft drinks such as root beer, giner ale, Sprite, 7-Up, orange sode, lime soda</td><td>Cola-type soft drinks such as Coke, Pepsi, Dr. Pepper</td></tr><tr><td>Flavoured drink mix (brands include Crystal Light, Mio, Kool-Aid, Freshie, Tang, ThirstQuencher)</td><td>Chocolate, malt or cocoa drinks and mixes (brands such as Ovaltine, Milo)</td></tr><tr><td>Iced tea</td><td>Coffee; tea</td></tr></tbody></table><p>*Avoid grapefruit juice.</p><p></p><h3>Snacks</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>​Best choices</th><th>Foods to avoid</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Unsalted corn chips, nacho chips (fried)</td><td>Potato chips, corn or nacho chips (salted or baked)</td></tr><tr><td>Unsalted popcorn</td><td>Regular or seasoned popcorn</td></tr><tr><td>Unsalted pretzels</td><td>All other types of pretzels</td></tr><tr><td></td><td>Chocolate; chocolate-flavoured desserts and drinks</td></tr><tr><td></td><td>Carob; licorice; caramel</td></tr><tr><td></td><td>Coconut; nuts; seeds</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><h3>Other foods</h3><p>These include soups, sweeteners, fats, condiments and seasonings. Avoid salt substitutes, as they contain high amounts of potassium.</p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>​Best choices</th><th colspan="2">Foods to avoid</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Homemade or low-sodium soups</td><td>Canned soup; dry soup mixes; bouillon or stock cubes</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>White sugar, corn syrup, table syrup, honey</td><td>Brown sugar, maple syrup, molasses, cocoa, chocolate or carob syrup</td></tr><tr><td>Herbs and spices (fresh or dried)</td><td>Herb and spice blends that contain salt; salt, sea salt, salt substitutes</td></tr><tr><td>Low-sodium soy or tamari sauce (limit to 5 mL or 1 teaspoon)</td><td>Soy, tamari, teriyaki or Worcestershire sauce</td></tr><tr><td>Ketchup; tabasco sauce (limit to 15 mL or 1 tablespoon a day)</td><td>Chili or barbecue sauce; bacon fat; canned gravy or gravy mixes</td></tr><tr><td>Homemade oil and vinegar salad dressing; low-sodium salad dressing</td><td>Store-bought salad dressing or dipping sauce (limit to 15 mL or 1 tablespoon a day)</td></tr><tr><td>Homemade sour cream and cream cheese dips made wtihout salt</td><td>Store-bought dips; dips made from packets or dry soup mixes</td></tr><tr><td></td><td>Pickles; olives; sauerkraut; Brewer's yeast</td></tr></tbody></table>