AboutKidsHealth for Teens



Healthy bodies during pubertyHHealthy bodies during pubertyHealthy bodies during pubertyEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2023-05-05T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Eating healthy foods, being physically active and sleeping well are important parts of a healthy lifestyle. Read about tips for keeping healthy as you navigate puberty.</p><h3>What is puberty</h3><p>Puberty is a time where your body is rapidly growing and experiencing many physical and mental changes. As you navigate these changes, it can be helpful to engage in healthy habits that will provide the foundation to a healthy lifestyle. Eating properly, exercising regularly and maintaining healthy sleep habits are all parts of establishing a healthy lifestyle. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Establish healthy eating routines and make healthy food choices.</li><li>Be physically active by regularly participating in activities you enjoy. </li><li>Get a good night's sleep by setting a regular sleep schedule.</li></ul>





Healthy bodies during puberty4144.00000000000Healthy bodies during pubertyHealthy bodies during pubertyHEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2023-05-05T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Eating healthy foods, being physically active and sleeping well are important parts of a healthy lifestyle. Read about tips for keeping healthy as you navigate puberty.</p><h3>What is puberty</h3><p>Puberty is a time where your body is rapidly growing and experiencing many physical and mental changes. As you navigate these changes, it can be helpful to engage in healthy habits that will provide the foundation to a healthy lifestyle. Eating properly, exercising regularly and maintaining healthy sleep habits are all parts of establishing a healthy lifestyle. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Establish healthy eating routines and make healthy food choices.</li><li>Be physically active by regularly participating in activities you enjoy. </li><li>Get a good night's sleep by setting a regular sleep schedule.</li></ul><h4>Establish healthy eating routines</h4><p>Eating well is important for everyone, especially growing teens. </p><ul><li>Eat three meals a day. It is important not to skip meals, especially breakfast.</li><ul><li>Healthy routines include eating three meals per day and having something to eat approximately every three hours, which can include 1-3 snacks daily.</li></ul><li>Try to eat within half an hour of waking up.</li><li>Between meals, plan for healthy snacks such as yogurt and fruit, cut up vegetables and hummus, or whole grain crackers and cheese. One to three healthy snacks a day can be helpful in preventing getting overly hungry between meals.</li><li>Eat slowly and without distractions like homework, TV or other screens. That way, you can better sense when you are full.</li><li>See Canada's Food Guide for recommended ratios to aim for and examples of foods that are high in helpful nutrients to the body.</li><li>Eat at home more often. Try to eat out less often.</li><li>Eat home cooked meals with family more often. </li></ul><h5>Make healthy food choices </h5><h6>Drinks</h6><ul><li>Choose water. If you are not that interested in water, choose from a variety of sugar-free drinks like unsweetened milk or soy-beverages and sparkling water.</li><li>Add sugar-free flavour-enhancing products, mint or fruits like lemon, lime, cucumber or orange wedges to tap water or sparkling water for additional variety and flavour.</li></ul>



Managing sickle cell painManaging sickle cell painManaging sickle cell painMEnglishHaematologyTeen (13-18 years)NACardiovascular system;Arteries;Veins;CapillariesConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)Fatigue;Joint or muscle pain;Pain2023-09-25T04:00:00Z10.000000000000049.5000000000000586.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the 3P approach to pain management, which is a combination of psychological, physical and pharmacological (medications) strategies.</p><p>Pain is much like hunger and thirst—it requires you to do something to get some relief.</p><p>Even if you cannot remove your pain, you can reduce it by changing the pain signals that reach your brain. The most effective way to change your pain signals is through the "3P approach" to pain management.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The most effective way to manage pain is with a combination of psychological, physical and pharmacological methods. This is called the "3P approach".</li><li>Psychological strategies may include managing stress, practising mindfulness and learning to think differently about pain.</li><li>Physical strategies include exercising and finding comfort positions.</li><li>Pharmacological strategies are medications. These may be a combination of pain medications and other types of medications to manage sickle cell symptoms.</li></ul><h2>3P approach to pain management</h2><p>Pain is best treated with:</p><ul><li> <a href="#psych">psychological strategies, or methods</a></li><li> <a href="#physical">physical strategies</a></li><li> <a href="#pharma">pharmacological strategies</a></li></ul><p>Together, these form the 3P approach to pain management. Check out this animation to learn more!<br></p><div class="asset-animation"> <iframe src="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/AKH/animations/3Ps_chronic_pain_management_SCD/3Ps_chronic_pain_management_SCD_EN.aspx"></iframe><br></div><h2 id="psych">Psychological strategies</h2> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iCanCopeSCD/INM_ICCP_3Ps_psychological_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Psychological strategies include learning how to manage stress, practise mindfulness, relax tense muscles and think differently about pain. All these strategies can help people reduce pain. Your goal is to find the strategies that will help you manage your pain in healthy ways and let you do the things you enjoy.</p><p>A number of psychological strategies are based on the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).</p><h3>Cognitive behavioural therapy</h3><p>Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a form of psychological treatment. Its name comes from its focus on the role of thoughts (the cognitive part) and behaviours in how we feel and what we do.</p><p>The image below shows how what you think, what you do and how you feel are all related to each other.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iCanCopeSCD/what_is_CBT_SCD_J4T_EN.png" alt="" /> </figure> <p>CBT has been used for over 30 years with teens dealing with many different pain conditions. It can alter pain signals and change how someone perceives pain. It is one of the best methods for reducing pain and helping people get back to doing their everyday activities.</p><p>Cognitive strategies are ways to help with your thinking. They include:</p><ul><li>skills to manage stress</li><li>skills to improve communication and relationships</li><li>thinking in new ways (sometimes called cognitive coping skills)</li></ul><p>Behavioural strategies are related to your actions. They include:</p><ul><li>deep breathing and relaxation</li><li>strategies to manage sleep problems</li><li>strategies to increase physical activity</li></ul><p>You will learn more about different psychological strategies to help manage your pain throughout the skills modules.</p><h2 id="physical">Physical strategies</h2> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iCanCopeSCD/INM_ICCP_3Ps_physical_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Physical strategies include finding positions of comfort and exercising. Learning how to get active in the right way can improve blood flow and even train your pain system to be less sensitive. Leading a more active life can improve your mood, sleep and energy level as well as reduce your pain. It also improves your physical function and overall well-being.</p><p>You will learn more on physical strategies in the <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=2160&language=english">module on keeping a healthy lifestyle</a>.</p><h2 id="pharma">Pharmacological strategies</h2> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iCanCopeSCD/INM_ICCP_3Ps_pharmacological_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>'Pharmacological strategies' is another name for medications. These can also be helpful when you use them with physical and psychological strategies.</p><p>Pain medications are designed to reduce pain signals at specific points in the pain pathway. Your health-care provider may recommend other medications or treatments to help manage other sickle cell disease symptoms, improve your sleep, reduce anxiety and help you manage your mood.</p><p>You can find more information on pharmacological strategies in the <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=2191&language=english">treatment and medications section</a> in the About sickle cell disease tab.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iCanCopeSCD/managing_pain_Copey_J4T.pngTeens
What causes cancer?What causes cancer?What causes cancer?WEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.2000000000000071.8000000000000537.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about possible causes of cancer and the role of genetics in a cancer diagnosis.</p><h2>What causes cancer?</h2><p>Scientists are researching the answer to what causes cancer. For most cancers though, especially cancers in young people, it’s still not known what causes them. We do know that cancer is not contagious. This means that cancer does not spread from one person to the next – you cannot "catch" cancer.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The cause of most cancers is unknown.</li><li>In rare cases, cancer is caused by a mutation in the genes of DNA passed on through family, but this does not guarantee you or anyone else in your family will have cancer.</li><li>For most teenagers, cancer happens by chance and not as a result of any one thing.</li></ul><h2>Genetics</h2><p>Having cancer yourself does not mean that your siblings, friends or parents will get cancer. Very rarely, cancer can be caused by a mutation in the genes of your DNA that is passed on through your family. A person with this mutated gene does not automatically get cancer, but the risk of developing cancer increases.</p><h2>Why did I get cancer?</h2><p>Scientists do not know what causes cancer in young people and your health-care team may not know what caused your cancer. </p><p>Many teens with cancer wonder "Why me?" You might wonder whether you did something that caused your cancer or that made you deserve cancer. The answer to both of these questions is NO. Having cancer is not your fault. You did not cause your cancer and you did not do anything to deserve it. Unfortunately, almost all of the time in teenagers, cancer just happens. Getting cancer happens entirely by chance.</p><p>You also did not catch cancer from anyone or anywhere else in the way you might catch a cold. <br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/What_causes_cancer-Teen.jpg ​Scientists are researching the answer to what causes cancer. Learn about possible causes of cancer and the role of genetics in a cancer diagnosis. Teens
Bipolar disorder: OverviewBipolar disorder: OverviewBipolar disorder: OverviewBEnglishAdolescent;PsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-12-02T05:00:00Z7.2000000000000069.70000000000001053.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder. Find out about the types of bipolar disorder, the symptoms and how it is diagnosed.</p><h2>What is bipolar disorder?</h2><p>Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that includes episodes of:</p><ul><li>unusually high, hyperactive or irritable mood (called manic or hypomanic episodes)</li><li>low mood (depressive episodes)</li></ul><p>Bipolar disorder is not usually diagnosed until a person has experienced a manic or hypomanic episode. A manic episode lasts for at least seven days. A hypomanic episode is less intense and shorter than a manic episode and lasts for at least four days. Symptoms of hypomania are also less severe than symptoms of mania. </p><h2>How is bipolar disorder different from everyday mood swings?</h2><p>Every youth experiences changes in their mood as a result of stressors (something that causes stress) or big life changes. What makes bipolar disorder different is that each mood change lasts longer (from days to months) and interferes with day-to-day functioning.</p><h2>What are the main symptoms of bipolar disorder?</h2><p>In addition to changes in mood, the manic and depressive episodes linked with bipolar disorder have many different symptoms. This may include symptoms of psychosis in some youth. The main symptoms of bipolar disorder involve episodes of depression and mania, and, sometimes, symptoms of psychosis.</p><h3>Symptoms of depression</h3><p>Depression has a range of emotional, cognitive, behavioural and physical symptoms. These include low mood, feelings of hopelessness, negative thoughts, loss of interest in enjoyable activities, and changes in sleep patterns.</p><h3>Symptoms of mania and hypomania</h3><p>Much like the symptoms of depression, the symptoms of mania and hypomania fall into the following categories:</p><ul><li>emotional (feelings)</li><li>cognitive (thoughts, brain function)</li><li>behavioural (actions)</li><li>physical (how your body feels)</li></ul><h3>Emotional symptoms</h3><p>During an episode of mania or hypomania, you may feel:</p><ul><li>elevated, euphoric (intense excitement or happiness) or irritable</li><li>grand or on top of the world</li></ul><h3>Cognitive symptoms</h3><p>Someone experiencing mania or hypomania may:</p><ul><li>have inflated self-esteem or grandiosity</li><li>suffer reduced concentration</li><li>have racing thoughts</li></ul><h3>Behavioural symptoms</h3><p>An episode of mania or hypomania can often involve:</p><ul><li>starting many different activities or projects</li><li>engaging in risky behaviour such as increased spending, <a href="/article?contentid=3841&language=english&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">substance use</a>, or risky sexual activity</li><li>talking more than usual and more quickly than usual, sometimes not allowing interruptions</li><li>jumping from one topic to another when speaking</li></ul><h3>Physical symptoms</h3><p>During an episode of mania or hypomania, you may experience:</p><ul><li>high energy levels</li><li>agitation</li><li>a decreased need for sleep, sleeping much less than usual without feeling tired</li></ul><h3>Symptoms of psychosis</h3><p>When someone experiences psychosis, they may develop beliefs that are not based on reality.</p><ul><li>During an episode of mania, their beliefs are typically positive, for example, a person might think they are better than others.</li><li>During depressive episodes, the beliefs are typically negative, for example, a person might believe they are responsible for catastrophic events.</li></ul><p>Someone experiencing psychosis may also sense things that do not really exist, for example, hearing voices or seeing things that others do not. They may also speak in a way that is difficult or impossible to follow, or develop new behaviours that seem bizarre.</p><h2>Types of bipolar disorder</h2><p>Not everyone experiences bipolar disorder in the same way. Bipolar disorder exists on a spectrum that includes:</p><ul><li>bipolar disorder, type 1</li><li>bipolar disorder, type 2</li><li>other bipolar disorders</li></ul><h3>Bipolar disorder, type 1</h3><p>Bipolar disorder, type 1, is diagnosed when a youth has had at least one episode of mania. This means that they have had specific symptoms that last for at least one week, which significantly impair their everyday functioning. Bipolar disorder, type 1, can be diagnosed when symptoms last for less than one week if the youth needs to be admitted to hospital.</p><p>Youth with bipolar disorder often also experience depressive episodes. But even if they have one or more episodes of depression, they can only be diagnosed accurately with bipolar disorder, type 1, once they have an episode of mania.</p><h3>Bipolar disorder, type 2</h3><p>Bipolar disorder, type 2, is diagnosed after a youth has had at least one episode of hypomania and at least one major depressive episode. This means that they have had a number of specific symptoms over at least four days. Symptoms of hypomania impair a youth's everyday functioning but not to the same degree as mania.</p><p>Youth with hypomania do not need to be admitted to hospital, and there are no associated symptoms of psychosis. </p><h3>Other bipolar disorders</h3><p>A health-care professional may diagnose another type of bipolar disorder if a youth has major symptoms of bipolar disorder but does not meet all the criteria for bipolar disorder, type 1 or 2.</p><h2>What causes bipolar disorder?</h2><p>There is no single known cause of bipolar disorder but rather a number of possible factors. For example, children who have a parent or sibling with bipolar disorder are more likely to develop the disorder themselves.</p><p>The risk of bipolar disorder may be higher as a result of various stressors in a youth's environment. These stressors might include the loss of a parent or caregiver, school difficulties, bullying, poverty or early life abuse or neglect. Some substances, such as cannabis, also increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder.</p><h2>How common is bipolar disorder in teens?</h2><p>Bipolar disorders affect between 1 and 3 per cent of teens. </p><h2>Does bipolar disorder occur with other conditions?</h2><p>Bipolar disorder often occurs with other conditions, especially <a href="/article?contentid=3810&language=english&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">anxiety disorders</a>. Other conditions that commonly occur with bipolar disorder include:</p><ul><li>substance use disorders</li><li>attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</li><li>disruptive disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder.</li></ul><h2>How bipolar disorder is diagnosed</h2><p>Your doctor will assess:</p><ul><li>your concerns and the symptoms that are interfering with your functioning</li><li>current stressors in your life</li><li>medications that you take</li><li>substances that you use</li><li>your development (from pregnancy onwards)</li><li>your family's mental health history</li><li>family stressors</li></ul><p>If you have experienced significant symptoms of mania or hypomania, you may meet the criteria for bipolar disorder.</p><p>Your doctor may also want to do other tests to check for possible general medical or neurological causes of your symptoms.</p><p>If you are diagnosed with bipolar disorder, your doctor will discuss the <a href="/article?contentid=3845&language=english&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">most appropriate treatment options</a> with you. You may want input from other members of your family or your school.</p><p>Your doctor may suggest that you see a therapist or a psychiatrist. They may also recommend medications or lifestyle changes. Most people need medications to properly treat bipolar disorder.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about bipolar disorder</h2><p>See your doctor if you have concerns about hypomania or mania.</p><p>Go to your nearest emergency department if there are concerns about safety (such as suicidal thoughts or behaviours), aggressive thoughts or behaviours, risk-taking behaviours or psychosis.</p><h3>Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) – <a href="http://www.camh.ca/">camh.ca</a></h3><p>CAMH is a mental health and addiction teaching and research hospital that provides a wide range of clinical care services for patients of all ages and families.</p><p> <a href="https://youtu.be/qMnQFTy3t30">Mood Matters: How Food, Movement & Sleep Can Have an Impact on You</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ID3844%20BiP%20Dis%20Overview.jpgTeens
Gender and identityGender and identityGender and identityGEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Resources to answer questions you may have on sex, gender and sexual orientation as well as how to find support and resources when you need them. </p><p>Resources to answer questions you may have on sex, gender and sexual orientation as well as how to find support and resources when you need them. </p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Gender and identity</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p> Read about sex, gender and sexual orientation to better understand the complete story of who you are on the inside and how you want to present to the world.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3953&language=English">Gender identity and sexual orientation: An Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3961&language=English">Questioning your gender and identifying as transgender</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3962&language=English">Transitioning</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3963&language=English">Using gender-inclusive language</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3964&language=English">Gender and identity: Support and resources</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3976&language=English">Sharing personal information, coming out and being outed</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3977&language=English">The right to safe spaces</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3978&language=English">Finding a primary health-care provider</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Additional resources</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The following resources from Holland Bloorview offer information about sexuality and disability.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://hollandbloorview.ca/disability-sexuality-resource-hub">Disability and Sexuality Resource Hub</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://hollandbloorview.ca/disability-sexuality-resource-hub/sexuality-guides">“Becoming You: Exploring sexuality and disability for pre-teens” book</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/gender%20transitioning_ContentID3962.jpggender Discover resources to answer questions you may have on sex, gender and sexual orientation, as well as how to find support and resources. Teens
Recognizing stress and anxietyRecognizing stress and anxietyRecognizing stress and anxietyREnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.1000000000000076.3000000000000610.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about how stress works, how you can recognize when you are feeling stress, and the signs of body and mind stress.</p><p>Now that you have thought about some of the things that cause you stress, it is important to learn more about how stress works so you can recognize it. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Stress triggers a 'fight or flight' response in your body, and when this goes on for too long your muscles become tense, your heart rate increases and you may start to feel sick or tired.</li><li>Stress looks different for everyone, so it is important to spend time figuring out how you react to stress, both physically and emotionally.</li><li>Physical signs of stress include cold or sweaty hands, change in appetite, upset stomach and a racing heartbeat.</li><li>Signs of mind stress include feeling easily irritated, nervous, worried or overwhelmed.</li></ul><h2>How does stress work?</h2><p>When you are under stress, your muscles get a big dose of energy called adrenaline. This energy prepares you to fight back or run (often called the ‘fight or flight’ response). In other words, stress makes you more alert and ready to act. But if you have too much stress or if it goes on for a long time, your muscles can become tense, your heart beats faster and your body may start feeling sick or tired. As a result, stress can actually make your cancer symptoms and treatment side effects such as <a href="/Article?contentid=3518&language=English">pain</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=3515&language=English">fatigue</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=3517&language=English">nausea</a> feel worse. </p><h2>How can I recognize when I am feeling stress?</h2><p>Stress looks and feels different for different people. Something that is stressful to you may not be stressful to someone else. Many young people don’t realize when they are experiencing stress. You may need to spend some time figuring out how your body and your mind react to stress. </p><h2>Signs of body stress</h2><p>When we are stressed or anxious, our bodies will start to show physical signs of tension. Here are some common signs of body stress. Check which ones you might have felt and think about anything else you may experience when you are stressed. </p><ul><li>Cold or sweaty hands and skin </li><li>Change in appetite – eating too much or not enough</li><li>Upset stomach (butterflies in stomach) or headaches</li><li>Fast, irregular or racing heartbeat </li><li>Feeling fidgety or biting your nails</li><li>Fast and shallow breathing </li><li>Tight muscles that cannot relax in your face, neck or back </li><li>Trouble falling asleep or staying asleep </li><li>Low energy or feeling tired for no obvious reason </li></ul><h2>Signs of mind stress</h2><p>Sometimes a bad feeling, anger, nervousness or sadness can be a clue that you are stressed or anxious. You may have difficulty concentrating or feel like you can’t stop worrying about something. You might feel really hopeless. These are signs of mind stress. </p><p>Here is a list of feelings you may have when you feel stressed. </p><p>Check which ones you may have felt. Think about any other feelings you have when you are stressed.</p><ul><li>Easily irritated or feeling on edge </li><li>Nervous, jumpy or restless </li><li>Worried </li><li>Racing thoughts or constant thoughts about certain things </li><li>Feeling overwhelmed </li><li>Feeling out of control </li><li>Feeling sad or depressed </li><li>Finding it difficult to concentrate or make decisions </li><li>Wanting to escape or run away </li></ul><h2>Stress and bad feelings: a negative cycle</h2><p>Stress can have a negative effect on your thoughts and emotions. In turn, unhelpful thoughts and emotions can also cause you to worry and feel more anxious. Eventually, the stress, emotions and anxiety cause tension in your body.</p><p>Feeling tense in your body makes stress seem bigger and even more overwhelming. It’s like a negative cycle – stress can lead to bad feelings that make us more anxious and tense and these make us even more stressed. We can reduce stress by breaking this cycle at any point! </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Recognizing_stress_and_anxiety.jpgTeens
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)SEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)Body;PelvisNAConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2021-10-19T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000063.40000000000001213.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Sexually transmitted infections are disease that are spread through sexual contact. Learn about the different types of STIs including signs, symptoms, testing and treatment, as well as how to prevent an STI. </p><h2>What is a sexually transmitted infection (STI)?</h2><p>Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diseases that can spread from person to person through any sexual contact. Many STIs don’t have any obvious signs or symptoms at first. This is why it’s so important that you protect yourself and your partner(s) by using protection and getting tested regularly.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are spread from person to person through sexual contact.</li><li>You can prevent STIs by using protection such as condoms, discussing STIs and safe sex with your partner(s), asking your health-care provider about vaccines, and getting regularly tested.</li><li>If you have an STI, do not have sex until the infection is gone, and your health-care provider says that it is OK. </li><li>If you think you have an STI, make an appointment with a health-care provider right away so you can be tested and start treatment.</li></ul><h2>How can I prevent STIs?</h2><p>The best ways to prevent an STI are:</p><ul><li>Use <a href="/article?contentid=3988&language=english">protection such as condoms</a></li><li>Discuss STIs and safe sex with your partner(s) so that you can protect each other</li><li>Ask your health-care provider about getting vaccinated against hepatitis B and human papillomavirus (HPV)</li><li>Get tested regularly for STIs</li></ul><div class="caution"><p>If you have an STI, don’t have sex until the infection is gone, and your health-care provider says it’s OK. If the STI has no cure (such as herpes or HIV) make sure you always use protection.</p></div><h2>What do I do if I think I have an STI?</h2><p>If you think you might have an STI, contact your health-care provider. Or to find a sexual health clinic near you, visit the <a href="https://www.actioncanadashr.org/resources/services">Action Canada for Sexual Health and Rights website</a>.</p><h2>What are the different types of STIs? </h2><ul><li><a href="#topic1">Chlamydia</a></li><a href="#topic1"> </a><li><a href="#topic1"> </a><a href="#topic2">Gonorrhea</a></li><li> <a href="#topic3">Syphilis</a></li><li> <a href="#topic4">HPV</a></li><li> <a href="#topic5">Trichomoniasis</a></li><li> <a href="#topic6">Hepatitis B</a></li><li> <a href="#topic7">Hepatitis C</a></li><li> <a href="#topic8">Herpes</a></li><li> <a href="#topic9">Pubic lice</a></li><li> <a href="#topic10">Scabies</a></li><li> <a href="#topic11">HIV</a></li></ul><h3 id="topic1">Chlamydia</h3><p>Chlamydia affects the cervix and urethra, and sometimes the rectum, throat and eyes. It is the most common bacterial STI and is more common in female-bodied people than male-bodied people.</p><p>Most people with chlamydia have no symptoms at all. Signs and symptoms of chlamydia may include:</p><ul><li>Discharge from penis or vagina</li><li>Vaginal bleeding after sex or between periods</li><li>Pain in the abdomen or lower back</li><li>Pain during sex</li><li>Itchy urethra<br></li><li>Pain or swelling in testicles</li><li>Pain or burning while urinating (peeing)</li></ul><p>Chlamydia is diagnosed through:</p><ul><li>Urine sample OR</li><li>Swab of cervix, urethra, vagina, rectum, nose, throat and/or eyes.</li></ul><p>Treatment for chlamydia is antibiotic pills.</p><p>You should be retested for chlamydia 6 months after treatment.</p><h3 id="topic2">Gonorrhea </h3><p>Gonorrhea affects the cervix and urethra, and sometimes the rectum and throat. It is the second most common bacterial STI. You might sometimes hear it called 'the clap'.<br></p><p>Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea may include:</p><ul><li>Discharge from penis or vagina</li><li>Pain during sex</li><li>Pain in lower abdomen or pelvis</li><li>Vaginal bleeding after sex or between periods</li><li>Irregular periods</li><li>Pain or swelling in testicles</li><li>Pain or burning while urinating</li><li>May have no symptoms</li></ul><p>Gonorrhea is diagnosed through:</p><ul><li>Urine sample OR</li><li>Swab of the infected area (penis, vagina, cervix, anus, throat, and/or eye)</li></ul><p>Gonnorhea is treated with antibiotic pills and muscular injection.</p><p>You may be instructed by your health-care provider to be retested 2 to 3 weeks after treatment to ensure the infection is gone. Anyone who has been treated for gonorrhea should be retested 6 months after treatment.</p><h3 id="topic3">Syphilis</h3><p>Syphilis is caused by bacteria. Rates of cases have been increasing in Canada.</p><p>Syphilis has 4 stages of symptoms: </p><ul><li>Primary – a painless sore at the affected area.</li><li>Secondary – flu-like symptoms and rash developing 3 weeks to 6 months after infection.</li><li>Latent – syphilis is untreated, and generally has no symptoms; this phase can continue for years.</li><li>Tertiary – 10-30 years after infection; damage to organs.</li></ul><p>Syphilis is diagnosed through:</p><ul><li>Swab of affected area (primary syphilis only).</li><li>Blood test.</li></ul><p>Syphilis is treated with penicillin, or other antibiotics. Early treatment is important as damage caused by syphilis can’t be reversed.</p><h3 id="topic4">HPV and genital warts </h3><p>Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STI. The highest rates of HPV are in teens and young adults aged 15-24 years old.</p><p>Some types of HPV can cause genital warts and others can cause cancer if left untreated.</p><p>A vaccine is available to prevent HPV.</p><p>Some people may not have any signs or symptoms at all, while others might have the following:</p><ul><li>Warts that look like tiny bumps on the vagina, anus, cervix or inside of the thigh; may be small or hard to see.</li><li>Pain or bleeding.</li></ul><p>HPV is diagnosed through:</p><ul><li>Visual exam.</li><li>Pap test (only for those age 25 or older).</li></ul><p>Treatment for HPV includes watching the warts to see if they go away or wart removal by a health-care professional <strong>(never use over-the-counter wart medicine on genital warts unless prescribed by a health-care professional)</strong>.</p><h3 id="topic5">Trichomoniasis </h3><p>Trichomoniasis is a common infection affecting the vulva, vagina, cervix, urethra, bladder, and penis.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis may include: </p><ul><li>Discharge or odor from the vagina or penis.</li><li>Pain or burning while peeing.</li><li>Pain during sex.</li><li>Itchiness.</li></ul><p>It's diagnosed through a swab of the affected area.</p><p>Antibiotics is the main treatment for trichomoniasis.</p><h3 id="topic6">Hepatitis B </h3><p>Hepatitis B is a virus that affects the liver.</p><p>A vaccine is available to prevent Hepatitis B.</p><p>Most people do not have signs of hepatitis B. Up to 8 weeks after exposure, you may have flu-like symptoms.</p><p>Hepatitis B is diagnosed with a blood test.</p><p>There is no cure for hepatitis B, but most people recover and have no symptoms after 6 months.</p><h3 id="topic7">Hepatitis C </h3><p>Hepatitis C is a virus that affects the liver.</p><p>Acute symptoms of hepatitis C may include:</p><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms</li><li>Decreased appetite, weight loss</li><li>Jaundice</li><li>Rash</li><li>Dark urine or clay-coloured stool</li></ul><p>Chronic symptoms of hepatitis C may include: </p><ul><li>Jaundice</li><li>Swelling of the abdomen (belly)</li><li>Blood in stool (poo) and vomit</li><li>Interrupted sleep</li><li>Depression</li><li>Weight loss</li><li>Itchy skin</li><li>Brain disease</li></ul><p>Hepatitis C is diagnosed with a blood test.</p><p>A combination of medications are used to treat the hepatitis C infection.Treatment also includes preventing liver damage.</p><h3 id="topic8">Herpes </h3><p>There are 2 types of herpes:</p><ul><li>HSV-1 more commonly causes oral infection (cold sores, fever blisters around the mouth)</li><li>HSV-2 more commonly causes genital herpes with lesions/sores around the vulva, vagina, cervix, anus and penis</li></ul><p>Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can infect both the mouth and the genitals. They can both be spread by kissing, touching, oral sex, unprotected vaginal or anal sex.</p><p>Symptoms of a first infection may include:</p><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms</li><li>Cold sore or fever blister around the nose, lips or in the mouth</li><li>Pain while peeing</li><li>Genital pain</li><li>Genital blisters</li><li>Genital ulcers</li></ul><p>Symptos of a recurrent infection (an infection that comes back) include:</p><ul><li>Tingling, itching or burning</li><li>Sores inside the mouth or on the lips, vulva, vagina, or penis</li></ul><p>Herpes is diagnosed through a swab of a lesion/sore.</p><p>Medication is used to decrease the length and severity of a herpes outbreak. There is no cure for herpes.</p><h3 id="topic9">Pubic lice </h3><p>Pubic lice are small insects that nest in pubic hair. They're sometimes called 'crabs' because of their appearance.</p><p>Can also be found in the eyebrows, armpit hair, beards and mustaches.</p><p>The main signs and symptoms of pubic lice are itching, redness or irritation at the affected area.</p><p>They're diagnosed through a physical exam of the infected area by a health-care professional.</p><p>Pubic lice are treated with medicated creams, lotions, or shampoos to apply to the affected area.</p><h3 id="topic10">Scabies </h3><p>Scabies are mites that burrow under the skin to lay eggs.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of scabies may include:</p><p>Rash or bumps, particularly in a line.</p><p>Itching.</p><p>Scabies is diagnosed through:</p><ul><li>Physical exam of the infected area by a health-care professional.</li><li>Scraping of the rash to look for mites, fecal matter of mites, or mite eggs under a microscope.</li></ul><p>Scabies are treated with scabicide creams or lotions to apply to the affected area.</p><h3 id="topic11">HIV </h3><p>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system. In some cases it can develop into AIDS.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of HIV may include:</p><ul><li>Mild flu-like symptoms that develop 2-4 weeks after exposure then disappear.</li></ul><p>After several years (usually after at least 10 years), symptoms can include:</p><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms </li><li>Enlarged lymph nodes </li><li>Shortness of breath or dry cough </li><li>Vision loss</li><li>Lesions on skin </li><li>Anemia </li><li>Severe shingles or oral or genital ulcers </li></ul><p>In rare cases, some people do not have any symptoms (chronic asymptomatic HIV).</p><p>HIV is diagnosed through blood work.</p><p>Antiretroviral therapy is used to slow the progression of HIV.</p><p> <a href="https://www.sexandu.ca/stis/">Sex & U</a></p><p> <a href="https://youngwomenshealth.org/sexual-health-index/">Center for Young Women's Health</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/AKH%20Social%20Media/Sexually%20Transmitted%20Infections_Teens.jpg ​Learn about the different types of sexually transmitted infections including signs, symptoms, testing and treatment, as well as how to prevent them. Teens
How to take care of your teethHow to take care of your teethHow to take care of your teethHEnglishDentalTeen (13-18 years)TeethMouthNon-drug treatmentTeen (13-18 years)NA2023-11-20T05:00:00Z5.8000000000000077.0000000000000451.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to properly take care of your teeth at home, why it’s so important, and how often you really need to go to the dentist.</p><h2>Why is toothbrushing important?</h2><p>Brushing your teeth helps to remove plaque, which is the breakdown of food that coats your teeth. Brushing every day to remove plaque helps to prevent cavities and gum disease.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Brush your teeth twice a day, for two minutes each time.</li><li>Floss once a day.</li><li>Visit your dentist regularly to keep your teeth and gums healthy and help prevent cavities and gum disease.</li></ul><h2>How to brush your teeth</h2><p>Follow these steps to brush your teeth properly:</p><ol><li>Gently brush the outer surface of your teeth, tooth by tooth.</li><li>At a 45-degree angle, brush against the gumline to get rid of plaque and food bits that may be trapped there.</li><li>Gently brush the inner surface of your teeth, tooth by tooth.</li><li>Clean the chewing surface of your teeth.</li><li>Brush your tongue to remove bacteria that can cause bad breath.</li></ol><p> <strong>Remember:</strong> You should be brushing your teeth for two minutes, twice a day. <br> Change your toothbrush at least every 3 months, or sooner if you have been sick.</p><h2>Flossing</h2><p>You also need to floss once per day. It doesn’t matter if you do this in the morning or at night. Flossing can help to prevent cavities, bad breath and gum disease. You might bleed and have some pain for the first few days if you haven’t flossed in a while, but this will go away with regular flossing.</p><h3>How to floss your teeth</h3><ol><li>Take a piece of floss about as long as your forearm.</li><li>Wrap it around your middle fingers, leaving a two-inch gap between your hands.</li><li>With your index fingers, slide the floss between the teeth and wrap it into a ‘C’ shape.</li><li>Wipe the tooth from the gum to the tip at least two or three times.</li><li>Use a new part of the floss for each tooth.</li></ol><p>Floss both sides of each tooth and remember the backs of the last molars. Instead of standard floss, you can also use other flossing tools such as flossers/floss picks and water picks.</p><h2>Other dental care tips</h2><ul><li>You can use a manual or electric toothbrush. Electric toothbrushes usually have a built in two-minute timer.</li><li>There are several different types of toothpastes you can use depending on your concerns (cavities, whitening, sensitivity). If you’re not sure what to use, talk to your dentist or hygienist.</li><li>Make regular appointments with your dentist. They can help to remove plaque build-up and identify other problems like cavities or gum disease.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/How_to_take_care_of_your_teeth.jpgTeens