|Human papilloma virus (HPV) and genital warts||Human papilloma virus (HPV) and genital warts||Human papilloma virus (HPV) and genital warts||H||English||Genital and reproductive||Teen (13-18 years)||Pelvis||Reproductive system;Immune system||Conditions and diseases||Teen (13-18 years)||NA||2022-05-10T04:00:00Z||8.70000000000000||59.7000000000000||1505.00000000000||Flat Content||Health A-Z||<p>Human papilloma virus (HPV) is an infection that causes warts and possibly cancer. Learn about how it is passed on, treated and prevented.</p>||<h2>What is human papilloma virus (HPV)?</h2><p>Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a contagious virus that is spread by skin-to-skin contact. It is the most common sexually transmitted infection in Canada.</p><p>HPV can infect the outer layer of skin and the smooth, moist linings of the mouth, the rectum, the anus and genital areas of people of all sexes and genders.</p><p>There are over 100 types of HPV. Many of these types cause the common warts that appear on hands and feet. Other low-risk types, usually HPV 6 and 11, cause genital warts. High-risk types like HPV 16 and 18 have been linked to cancer, particularly cancer of the cervix.</p><p>For some people, HPV may go away without treatment. For many people, though, once you have an HPV infection, the virus stays in your body for a period of time. This means it is possible to have and pass on HPV, even if you do not have any symptoms.</p><h2>What are genital warts?</h2><p>Genital warts can appear in different forms, sometimes weeks, months or years after being infected with HPV. There can be one or many in the genital areas or around the anus. They can be flat or raised. When the warts are raised, they may look like cauliflower. The warts can be pink, brown or the same colour as your skin.</p><p>Genital warts can disappear or reappear over time.</p>||<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect the outer layer of skin and the smooth, moist linings of the mouth, upper throat, the rectum, the anus and genital areas. There are many types of HPV, and they can cause different health issues. HPV 6 and 11 cause genital warts, and HPV 16 and 18 can lead to cancer.</li><li>HPV is passed on by skin-to-skin contact, including during sexual contact.</li><li>Once you have an HPV infection, the virus may stay in your body. It is possible to pass on HPV even if you do not have any signs of infection.</li><li>There are several different treatments for genital warts.</li><li>There are vaccines that protect against HPV. The ideal time to receive the vaccine is before you are sexually active, but it is still important to get the vaccine even if you have already had sexual contact.</li></ul>||<h2>What can increase the risk of a person getting an HPV infection?</h2><ul><li>Being very young at the time you first have sexual intercourse</li><li>A high number of sexual partners</li><li>If your sexual partner has had many sexual partners</li><li>A history of sexual abuse</li><li>If you use tobacco and/or marijuana</li><li>If your immune system is suppressed either by another condition or medications</li><li>If you have an HIV infection</li></ul><h2>HPV is passed on by contact with the virus</h2><p>HPV is passed on by skin-to-skin contact. Genital HPV infections are usually passed on by sexual contact with an infected person involving the mouth, throat, genital and/or anal area. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It affects up to three-quarters (75%) of sexually active people over a lifetime. Using a condom during sexual intercourse can protect some areas of the skin from HPV infection.</p><p>Once HPV is spread from partner to partner there are three ways in which the infection can present in the human body:</p><ul><li>
<strong>Asymptomatic</strong>: a person may be infected and have no symptoms and not know that they even have the infection. However, this does not stop the infected person from spreading the infection to their sexual partners.</li><li>
<strong>Genital warts</strong>: these are painless cauliflower-like growths or flesh-coloured bumps of different sizes that can grow around the genital area (e.g., the vulva, the vaginal wall, the penile or scrotal area or around the anal region). Direct skin-to-skin contact with these warts can lead to their spread from one sexual partner to another.</li><li>
<strong>Cancerous changes</strong>: after an infection with a high-risk type of HPV, the infection can change your body’s cells in the infected area from normal to abnormal. If these changes are not detected and left untreated for a long time, they can lead to the development of cancer.</li></ul><h2>How can you find out if you have an HPV infection?</h2><h3>Testing for HPV</h3><p>Most HPV infections come and go without any symptoms. There is no routine test for HPV. It is possible to test for HPV directly, but this is not usually recommended because HPV is so common. Testing to find out the type of HPV does not give any extra information about when or how you were infected.</p><p>The presence of genital and/or anal warts may indicate an infection, and there is treatment that is available for the management of warts.</p><h3>Looking for cervical changes</h3><p>In people who have a cervix, a health-care provider may use tests called a
<a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3991&language=English">Pap smear</a> to look for signs of problems that, if left unmonitored, could lead to cervical cancer. A Pap smear is not recommended until at least age 21 and often not until age 25 in most regions of Canada. To do a Pap smear, a health-care provider uses a small tool to collect cells from the cervix. The cells are inspected under a microscope.</p><h2>Treatment for genital warts</h2><p>Once genital warts are diagnosed, your health-care provider and you decide together which approach is best. There are a number of options for treating genital warts. Some treatments work better than others. Some treatments have risks or side effects, including causing some pain. These treatments will usually be avoided unless necessary. Which treatment is chosen will usually be based on the number, site, and size of the warts. It will also be based on what you prefer, the cost and the side effects. Some people may choose not to have any treatment.</p><p>Genital warts can be treated with medications used either by the infected individual or applied by a health-care provider.</p><p>Treatments you can use yourself include the following:</p><ul><li>Imiquimod (Aldara), a cream that is put on the warts.</li><li>Podofilox, a liquid put on the warts using a cotton swab.</li></ul><p>Treatments done by a heath-care provider include the following:</p><ul><li>Cryotherapy: this is when liquid nitrogen is applied to the wart, usually as a spray.</li><li>Tricholoracetic acid (TCA), which your doctor puts on the warts using a cotton swab. In rare cases, surgery may be needed to remove the warts.</li></ul><h2>Genital warts may go away and come back</h2><p>Without treatment, genital warts may go away by themselves, or they may last for years. Even if they have been treated, genital warts may come back in time.</p><h2>Early detection and prevention</h2><p>By reading this article, you have taken a really important step in educating yourself about
<a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3989&language=English">sexually transmitted infections (STIs)</a>. You can help detect an HPV infection early by checking your body for signs like warts on your external genitalia and anal region. If you do find any, talk to your health-care provider about treatment options.</p><p>Talk to your sexual partner about what their experience has been in terms of number of sexual partners and what their STI status is. Although this conversation may not be easy, it is important for you and your partner.</p><p>If you are sexually active, it is important to use condoms or other forms of barriers (e.g., an oral/dental dam) correctly and consistently to protect against the spread of STIs and prevent pregnancy. Remember that even though you may use a condom, there may be an area of skin (e.g., the inner thigh or scrotal area) not covered by the condom that may have the HPV infection, which can still lead to its spread.</p><h2>There are vaccines that protect against HPV</h2><p>There are three vaccines on the market in Canada: Gardasil, Gardasil 9 and Cervarix.</p><p>The Gardasil vaccine provides immunity to two strains of HPV that are linked to cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18) and two strains that are linked to genital warts (HPV 6 and 11). Gardasil 9 covers the same strains of HPV as regular Gardasil, as well as five additional strains. This is the vaccine recommended by the Canadian Pediatric Society and covered by most public vaccination programs. Both Gardasil and Gardasil 9 can be given to a person of any sex.</p><p>The Cervarix vaccine provides immunity to the two strains HPV 16 and HPV 18 and can be given to people who have a cervix. All three vaccines are made up of small, non-infective particles of a virus that is like HPV.</p><p>It is ideal to have the vaccine before beginning sexual activity, but the vaccines are still important even if you are already sexually active. For more information, see the article on
<a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4038&language=English">Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine</a>.</p>||<p>
<a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/human-papillomavirus-hpv.html">Government of Canada – Human papillomavirus (HPV)</a></p><p>
<a href="https://cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/reduce-your-risk/get-vaccinated/human-papillomavirus-hpv">Canadian Cancer Society – Human papillomavirus</a></p><p>
<a href="https://caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/preteens-and-teens/hpv_vaccine_teens">Caring for Kids – HPV: What teens need to know</a></p>||<p>Salvadori MI; Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee. Human papillomavirus vaccine for children and adolescents.
<em>Paediatr Child Health</em> 2018, 23(4):262–265. Retrieved from
|Setting limits and staying safe with screen time||Setting limits and staying safe with screen time||Setting limits and staying safe with screen time||S||English||Adolescent;Prevention||Teen (13-18 years)||NA||NA||Healthy living and prevention||Teen (13-18 years)||NA||2019-03-22T04:00:00Z||7.30000000000000||71.2000000000000||376.000000000000||Flat Content||Health A-Z||<p>Screen time is a part of daily life for most of us, but too much can have a negative effect on your mental health. Find out how to set limits on your screen time and how to stay safe online.</p>||<h2>Changing your screen time habits</h2><p>If you – or your parents – want to reduce your
<a href="/Article?contentid=3775&language=English">screen time</a>, here are a few suggestions to help change your habits.</p><ul><li>Schedule your screen time. For instance, allow yourself only 20 minutes of screen time in the morning before school or decide that you’ll enjoy screen time after doing your homework.</li><li>Avoid screens (especially mobile devices) in the hour before you go to bed. </li><li>Keep TVs and computers out of bedrooms. If you have a phone, charge it outside your bedroom at night.</li><li>Turn off the TV and put your phone away while you’re eating breakfast or dinner. Make a deal with others in your family to do the same. </li><li>If you tend to snack while enjoying screen time, try to choose
<a href="/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">nutritious options</a> such as vegetables, fruit or a yogurt. </li><li>Balance your screen time with fun activities that don’t involve a screen, like drawing, painting or playing games with your family and friends.</li><li>Consider doing a digital detox with your family, say by logging off from social media for 24 hours or even a weekend now and again. </li><li>If a detox sounds too severe, take small bursts of time without your device. Leave it at home while you go out for a walk or go to the store.</li></ul>||<h2>How to stay safe online</h2><p>Screens will always be part of your life. That said, you can take some simple steps to keep yourself as safe as possible online. </p><ul><li>Remember that not everyone you meet online is who they say they are. Sometimes people create fake profiles to target sites or apps aimed at kids and teens. </li><li>Never share your personal contact details with someone you haven’t met in person.</li><li>Don’t answer an online friend’s questions about details about yourself, where you live or your family, no matter how friendly they seem.</li><li>Remember that what you post online stays online and can be shared widely in an instant. Be careful about the photos or videos you share and the comments you make, whether on YouTube or in private messages or closed groups. </li><li>Tell your parents or another trusted adult if anybody is bullying or harassing you online, in group chats or in private messages. </li></ul><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video">
<iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Ty93GRPplJo?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe>
<strong>Dealing with difficult moments</strong></span></div><p>
<strong>How to use: </strong>This video guides you through an exercise of compassion. Use it when you are finding it hard to show kindness to yourself and others or if you are having trouble getting along with someone in your life. Follow along with this video, listening to the guidance to help you regain a kind perspective towards a difficult person.</p></div>||<p>Lambert, L., September 5, 2018.
<em><a href="https://www.familyminded.com/s/setting-boundaries-for-your-social-media-enthralled-kids-and-self-92eb889b6328487f">Setting Boundaries for Your Social Media-Enthralled Kids (and Self)</a></em>. Family Minded. Granite Media [Accessed November 27, 2018]</p><p>Bark.
<em><a href="http://www.positiveteenhealth.org/uploads/3/7/6/7/37678703/the-ultimate-parent-guide-to-youtube.pdf">The Ultimate Parent Guide to YouTube.</a></em><br></p><h3>Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) –
<a href="http://www.camh.ca/">camh.ca</a></h3><p>CAMH is a mental health and addiction teaching and research hospital that provides a wide range of clinical care services for patients of all ages and families.</p><p>
<a href="https://youtu.be/qMnQFTy3t30">Mood Matters: How Food, Movement & Sleep Can Have an Impact on You</a></p>||https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/setting_limits_screen_time.jpg||Set limits and stay safe with screen time|| Too much screen time can have a negative effect on your mental health. Find out how to set limits on your your screen time and how to stay safe online.||Teens|
|How to communicate about celiac disease when you eat out||How to communicate about celiac disease when you eat out||How to communicate about celiac disease when you eat out||H||English||Gastrointestinal||Teen (13-18 years)||Small Intestine||Digestive system||Healthy living and prevention||Teen (13-18 years)||NA||2023-07-26T04:00:00Z||8.30000000000000||63.6000000000000||1172.00000000000||Flat Content||Health A-Z||<p>Eating out when you have celiac disease requires planning and clear communication with wait staff and food service employees. Learn tips to help you eat out safely.</p>||<p>Celiac disease is a lifelong condition. The only treatment is a strict gluten-free diet for life. Sticking to the gluten-free diet can make it a challenge to eat out, but with time and practice, it can get easier. Here are some tips to follow while eating out.</p>||<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Plan ahead and ask questions to figure out if a restaurant can accommodate your dietary needs.</li><li>Practice using the MyHealth 3 Sentence Summary to let others know that you have celiac disease and what your health needs are.</li><li>Eating out on a gluten-free diet is challenging. Get support from others so they can support you.</li><li>Accept that it won't always be easy to eat out on a gluten-free diet, but if it's important to you, then it's worth making the effort.</li></ul>||<h2>Plan ahead</h2><p>If you know where you're going out to eat, plan ahead by looking up the restaurant online. Take a look at the menu and check if any information about the food, including meal ingredients and food preparation/service, are available. Call or email the restaurant before you go to ask them about ingredients and food preparation.</p><p>Think ahead about the questions you want to ask the server or management staff at the restaurant.</p><p>After asking questions about the menu and restaurant, you may feel that it is not safe to eat there. If you can, plan ahead by bringing safe gluten-free alternatives to eat just in case this happens.</p><h2>Communication tool: MyHealth 3 Sentence Summary</h2><p><a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/patients-visitors/transition-adult-care/">MyHealth 3 Sentence Summary</a> is one practical approach that you can use as part of managing a medical condition like celiac disease. It is a three-step approach that teaches you how to summarize and communicate your health history and needs to others, including your health-care team, teachers at school, manager at work or a server at a restaurant.</p><h3>MyHealth 3 Sentence Summary</h3><p>Sentence 1: Your diagnosis and brief medical history (only include the parts of your medical history that make sense for the situation and that you are comfortable sharing).</p><p>Sentence 2: Your treatment plan (for celiac disease, the gluten-free diet is the treatment plan).</p><p>Sentence 3: Your question(s) and/or needs.</p><p>Here is an example:</p><p>"Hi, I'm Max and I have celiac disease. I need to follow a strict gluten-free diet for my celiac disease. Do you have any gluten-free options on the menu?"</p><p>To learn more about the MyHealth 3 Sentence Summary, please read <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=4161&language=english&hub=celiacdisease">Celiac disease: How to be a self-advocate and communicate about your health</a>.</p><h2>Educate restaurant staff</h2><p>After clearly telling your server that you need gluten-free foods, they might ask something like, "Is your gluten-free diet a preference or an allergy?" Not everyone knows what celiac disease is, so you may need to explain to the restaurant staff why you cannot have gluten. One option is to use the MyHealth 3 Sentence Summary to tell the server that you have celiac disease and that following a gluten-free diet is a medical treatment. Here is one example of something you could say: "I have celiac disease and if I have even small amounts of gluten, it will make me sick."</p><p>Another option is to tell your server that you need to avoid gluten like a person with a peanut allergy must avoid any small amount of peanut. Although celiac disease is not an allergy, it can help some people understand the importance of avoiding all sources of gluten. You could say to your server, "I have to avoid all sources of gluten, which includes foods that have wheat, barley or rye. It's like a nut allergy; even if I have the smallest amount of gluten, I will get sick."</p><p>It can be helpful to educate restaurant staff about gluten cross-contact and give examples of where cross-contact can happen. Let them know that cross-contact with gluten is when gluten is transferred from one food or object (such as preparation or cooking surfaces and utensils) to another food or object.</p><h2>Ask questions</h2><p>Be as specific as you can when you place a food order. Here are some specific questions you can ask to make sure the food at a restaurant is safe for you to eat:</p><ul><li>Can you give me a list of all ingredients in this dish?</li><li>Can the kitchen staff take extra precautions to wash the area they are going to make my food on?</li><li>Can the kitchen staff make sure to wash their hands after making other people's food to prevent gluten cross-contact?</li><li>Can you put on a new pair of gloves after touching someone else's food?</li><li>Is there a separate, dedicated fryer for gluten-free items?</li><li>How is your sauce thickened? With flour? Can I have this with no sauce?</li><li>Can I have this dish with no bread/buns on my plate?</li><li>Can I have this salad with no croutons?</li><li>Can you please verify that the [seasoning, marinade, soy sauce, dressing, salsa, guacamole, chicken/beef stock] is gluten-free?</li><li>Is there a separate area on the griddle to cook gluten-free foods?</li><li>Is there a dedicated spot in the kitchen to prepare gluten-free dishes?</li><li>Is the gluten-free pasta cooked in different pasta water than regular pasta?</li><li>Are separate toppings used to make gluten-free pizza? How is the gluten-free pizza separated from other items in the oven?</li><li>Can you take out a new container of ice cream and a clean scoop for my ice cream dish to prevent gluten cross-contact?</li></ul><h2>Accidental exposure to gluten happens</h2><p>It's important to remember that gluten-containing foods and products are everywhere, and it's common for people with celiac disease to have accidental exposures to gluten.</p><p>Communication skills, including the MyHealth 3 Sentence Summary, will become easier with practice. Do not be hard on yourself if you do not respond to situations the way you had planned or wanted. Sometimes, people won't get it, and that isn't your fault.</p><p>Remember, if eating out is important to you, then it is possible to do it safely while following your gluten-free diet. Just remember the following tips:</p><ul><li>Plan ahead by looking at the menu online or calling or emailing the restaurant before you go to ask questions.</li><li>Consider the areas at most risk for gluten cross-contact.</li><li>Practice how you want to communicate before you eat out. Remember to be as specific as possible and repeat possible sources of gluten.</li><li>Talk to the server, restaurant manager or chef about your need for a gluten-free meal and ask lots of specific questions. Use terms like "food allergy" or "severe reaction" to stress the importance of your gluten-free diet.</li><li>Bring gluten-free snacks "just in case".</li></ul><p>If you feel stressed or overwhelmed, reach out to someone you trust to tell them how you feel and get support. You can also connect with <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/need-help-now-text-us/">Kids Help Phone online</a>, by text or phone to access services that can help you with your mental health and well-being.</p>||https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/How_to_communicate_about_celiac_disease_when_eating_out.jpg||Eating out with celiac disease|| Eating out when you have celiac disease requires planning and clear communication. Learn tips to help you eat out safely.||Teens|
|Adjusting to life off treatment||Adjusting to life off treatment||Adjusting to life off treatment||A||English||Oncology||Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)||NA||NA||Support, services and resources||Pre-teen (9-12 years)
Teen (13-15 years)
Late Teen (16-18 years)||NA||2019-09-03T04:00:00Z||7.50000000000000||67.0000000000000||686.000000000000||Flat Content||Health A-Z||<p>Finishing cancer treatment is a major milestone, but for some teens it may take time to readjust to "normal" life. Read about adjusting to life off treatment.</p>||<h2>I'm off treatment!</h2><p>Congratulations! You are finished treatment. For many people, finishing treatment is something to celebrate, although it is normal to be a bit nervous or scared about completing therapy. You, your family and your friends have probably been looking forward to this day for a long time, so give yourself some credit for the strength it took to get to this moment. Reflect on the skills you have gained along the way.</p>||<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>For most teens, it can take time to adjust to being off treatment and to cope with the difficult feelings that come with cancer and treatment and can last beyond the end of treatment.</li><li>Adjusting to life after cancer is difficult for almost all teens, their family and friend; talk to your health-care team if you feel like you are having trouble coping.</li><li>Some people may pressure you to "move on" but it is important to remember that they probably don't understand what you have been through; try to explain how you are feeling and the impact cancer and treatment has had on your emotions.</li></ul>||<h2>Finding a balance </h2><p>Your outlook as a cancer survivor is about finding a balance between looking towards your future and thinking back to what happened along your treatment journey. On the one hand, you want to focus on moving forward and living your life. On the other hand, cancer and its effects may still be impacting your life. You may also still have clinic and follow-up appointments to attend. </p><p>After treatment, a few teens are able to jump right back into their normal life like they never missed a beat. If this is you, that’s great! </p><p>But for most teens, it can take some time to adjust to being off treatment. This may be hard, but it is normal. You and your loved ones have been so focused on treatment and surviving cancer that, when it’s over, it’s common to ask, "Now what?" </p><p>The difficult feelings—confusion, fear, stress, anxiety—that can come with cancer and treatment may last longer than the cancer and treatment themselves. This can be especially true if you have experienced permanent physical or mental changes due to cancer. It’s common to wonder, "What exactly is this ‘normal’ life I am supposed to be returning to?"</p><h2>Redefining "normal"</h2><p>With all the changes that can come with finishing treatment, it can be more realistic to think of life off treatment as a new beginning rather than a return to ‘normal.’ Some describe it as a 'new normal'.</p><p>How do you make this switch? </p><ul><li>Try to focus on right now and looking toward the future rather than focusing on the past. </li><li>Try experimenting with different routines and activities. Try new things until you find something that works for you. </li><li>Take opportunities to celebrate life! Make an effort to celebrate important milestones such as birthdays or anniversaries of important dates. Don’t forget the little things such as your first haircut after chemotherapy. </li><li>Acknowledge the changes and loss you experienced because of cancer. It can be painful, but this is a necessary part of healthy recovery. </li><li>Acknowledge the strength it took to get through cancer, and recognize any positive changes that came from it. </li><li>Keep talking.
<a href="/Article?contentid=3502&language=English">Communicating</a> your feelings to someone you trust can help you make sense of your emotions and adjust to life off treatment. </li><li>Continue to practice the techniques for
<a href="/Article?contentid=3524&language=English">managing stress and emotions</a>,
<a href="/Article?contentid=3540&language=English">relaxation</a> and
<a href="/Article?contentid=3546&language=English">distraction</a>. </li><li>Surround yourself with supportive people.</li><li>Focus on making <a href="/Article?contentid=3566&language=English">healthy lifestyle choices</a>. </li></ul><p>Remember that adjusting to life after cancer is challenging for almost all teens, as well as their friends and family. It is a process, and it takes time. If you feel like you are having real difficulty coping, talk to someone on your health-care team. They can connect you with support and people who understand. </p><h2>Pressure to "move on"</h2><p>You may find that other people are frustrated or pressuring you to "get over it" and "move on." For many teens, this can be frustrating or hurtful and may leave you feeling misunderstood. Try to remember that they probably don’t understand what it’s like to be a teenaged cancer survivor, just as you didn’t understand what it was like before you experienced it. </p><p>You can try explaining to them that cancer is more than just a disease of the body. It is a life-changing experience that can affect your thoughts, emotions, and view of your place in the world. It is normal to take time to adjust. You can explain that surviving cancer is still something you are dealing with and that you need time to adjust in your own way. </p>||https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Adjusting_to_life_off_treatment.jpg||Adjusting to life off cancer treatment|| Finishing cancer treatment is a major milestone, but it may take time to readjust to "normal" life. Read about adjusting to life off treatment.||Teens|
|Information about cannabis for recreational use||Information about cannabis for recreational use||Information about cannabis for recreational use||I||English||Adolescent||Teen (13-18 years)||NA||NA||Healthy living and prevention||Teen (13-18 years)||NA||2022-05-25T04:00:00Z||11.4000000000000||42.9000000000000||974.000000000000||Flat Content||Health A-Z||<p>Learn about cannabis and find out about the short- and long-term effects of using it recreationally.</p>||<h2>What is cannabis?</h2><p>Cannabis (also known as marijuana, weed and pot) refers to a group of plants that are grown around the world, including Canada. The cannabis plant contains many chemical substances, including over 100 "cannabinoids".</p><h2>What is a cannabinoid?</h2><p>Cannabinoids affect cells in the brain and the body. They can change how those cells behave and communicate with each other.</p><h2>What are examples of cannabinoids?</h2><ul><li>THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is a cannabinoid you may hear about the most. It is a "psychoactive" component, meaning that it is responsible for the way your brain and body respond to cannabis, including the "high" or intoxicating effect.</li><li>CBD (cannabidiol) is also a cannabinoid. While it is also psychoactive, it does not produce a high or intoxication and is often used for medicinal purposes.</li></ul><p>Each cannabinoid works on different cannabinoid receptors located in the brain or other parts of the body.
Different formulations of cannabis contain varying amounts of THC and CBD, so the effects of cannabis on your body will depend on this, as well as how the cannabis is used (e.g., smoked, ingested, applied to the skin).</p>||<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Cannabis refers to a group of plants that contain chemical substances, including cannabinoids such as THC and CBD.</li><li>Cannabis can be consumed by smoking or vaping, eating cannabis products such as baked goods and candies, or applying it to the skin in the form of lotions or ointments.</li><li>You must be 19 and older to legally buy, use, possess and grow recreational cannabis in Ontario.</li><li>Short-term effects of cannabis use can include feeling relaxed, being sociable, increased heart rate, difficulty concentrating, delayed reaction time, feeling anxious or panicky, and distorted thoughts and/or paranoia.</li><li>Long-term effects of cannabis use can include: long-term impaired working memory, emotional dysregulation, poor attention and impulse control; increased risk of changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviours; cannabis hyperemesis (severe and repeated bouts of vomiting); and cannabis dependence.</li></ul>||<h2>How is cannabis consumed?</h2><p>Cannabis can be consumed through smoking or vaping the flower of the plant, or plant-based products. The active compounds can be extracted into edible forms (baked goods, candies, oils and beverages) and eaten. They are available both commercially and homemade. Cannabinoids can also be absorbed through the skin from topical cannabis products in the form of lotions or ointments.</p><h2>What is cannabis used for?</h2><h3>Recreation</h3><p>People often use cannabis to experience feelings of relaxation and contentment. <strong>You must be 19 and older to legally buy, use, possess and grow recreational cannabis in Ontario.</strong></p><p>Although recreational cannabis use under the age of 19 is illegal in Canada, cannabis is one of the most frequently used substances by teens. Most teens who have tried cannabis first used it at 14 years of age; and one in five cannabis users (aged 16-19 years) report daily use. Daily use can result in cannabis dependence and greatly increases the risk of longer-term effects on the brain and other areas of health and well-being.</p><h3>Medicine</h3><p>Cannabis has been used for a variety of purposes including appetite stimulation in serious illness, pain relief and anti-seizure therapy for people with rare forms of epilepsy. <strong>There are no age restrictions for the use of medical cannabis in Canada.</strong></p><h2>What is known about the effects of recreational cannabis in teens?</h2><h3>Short-term effects and risks</h3><p>In the short-term, cannabis can cause you to:</p><ul><li>feel more relaxed</li><li>be more sociable</li><li>have an increased heart rate</li><li>have difficulty concentrating, which can impact your learning, problem-solving, and school performance</li><li>have a delayed reaction time in response to changes in your environment (e.g., when you are driving)</li><li>feel anxious or panicky</li><li>experience distorted thoughts and perceptions and/or paranoia</li></ul><p>Depending on your age, weight and how you consume it, cannabis can also affect your balance.</p><h3>Longer-term effects and risks</h3><p>Regular and frequent cannabis use is associated with the risk of a number of long-term effects on your physical and mental health.</p><p>The long-term brain and mental health effects of cannabis use can impact teens in particular because the frontal lobes of their brains are still developing well into their twenties. This region of the brain is responsible for your working memory, emotional regulation, attention and impulse control, and is especially vulnerable to the effects of cannabis (and other drugs, including alcohol).</p><p>Regular <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3841&language=English">substance use</a>, including cannabis use, in teens is linked with an increased risk of changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Cannabis use can worsen any existing <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3983&language=English">depressive</a> and <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">anxiety disorders</a> you may have and has been associated with the development of schizophrenia and psychosis. This risk is higher in people with a family history of the disorder.</p><p>Teens (and adults) who use cannabis regularly can also develop cannabis hyperemesis, a syndrome where you have persistent nausea and vomiting that is only relieved by reducing/stopping your cannabis use. Taking hot showers can relieve the symptoms but will not prevent vomiting from recurring.</p><p>In addition, one in six teens who use cannabis frequently will develop cannabis dependence. Cannabis dependence includes needing to use more cannabis over time to have the same effect, and/or having difficulty sleeping, and being irritable when using less or stopping the use of cannabis.</p><h3>Using cannabis while driving</h3><p>Driving while high on cannabis is against the law in Canada. Cannabis can impair your driving by slowing your reaction time and affecting your ability to concentrate. Because it comes in different potencies and affects each person differently, it is not known how long you should wait to drive after consuming cannabis. It is important to recognize the dangers of driving under the influence of any substance and consider your options for getting home safely.</p>||<p>
<a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/canadian-student-tobacco-alcohol-drugs-survey/2018-2019-summary.html">Summary of results for the Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CSTADS) 2018-19</a></p><p>
<a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-medication/cannabis/research-data/canadian-cannabis-survey-2021-summary.html">Canadian Cannabis Survey 2021: Summary</a></p>||https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Info_about_cannabis_rec_use.jpg||Cannabis for recreational use||Teens|
|Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S)||Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S)||Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S)||R||English||Adolescent||Teen (13-18 years)||Body||Bones;Cardiovascular system;Muscular system||Healthy living and prevention||Teen (13-18 years)||Fatigue;Joint or muscle pain||2022-06-10T04:00:00Z||9.80000000000000||56.5000000000000||1079.00000000000||Flat Content||Health A-Z||<p>Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S) is a syndrome in athletes caused by consistently not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training. It is not an eating disorder but can put you at risk for developing, or can result in, one.</p>||<h2>What is RED-S?</h2><p>Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S) is a syndrome caused by consistently not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training. You may be unaware of just how few calories you are taking in, or you may be limiting your food intake on purpose due to disordered eating or influence/pressure by a parent or coach. Over time, if you do not get enough fuel through food to support the energy demands of your daily training, RED-S can lead to poor health and declining athletic performance.</p><h3>How is RED-S different from an eating disorder?</h3><p>RED-S is a syndrome (a group of symptoms that happen at the same time) that occurs from not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training. It may overlap with disordered eating, be the result of disordered eating, or it can be a risk factor for developing an eating disorder.</p>||<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>RED-S is a syndrome caused by consistently not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training.</li><li>Typical signs and symptoms include feeling tired and/or weak, significant weight loss, irregular/missed periods (for people who menstruate), trouble focusing, irritability, anxiety or depression, and frequent/increased injury and illness.</li><li>RED-S can affect athletes of any gender and ability level. You may be at higher risk of developing RED-S if you are a competitive athlete, your sport traditionally favours a thin or lean body type or requires frequent weigh-ins.</li><li>Over time, RED-S can lead to poor health and declining athletic performance.</li><li>You can help prevent RED-S by thinking of food as fuel, choosing activities that complement your natural body strengths, valuing health over competitive success, and being a body-positive role model.</li></ul>||<h2>What are the signs and symptoms of RED-S?</h2><h3>Physical</h3><ul><li>Feeling tired and/or weak</li><li>Quick and/or significant weight loss</li><li>Dehydration</li><li>Irregular/missed periods (amenorrhea) for people who menstruate</li><li>Frequent/increased injury (e.g., stress fractures, pulled muscles)</li><li>Slow injury healing</li><li>Heart problems (e.g., sudden drops in heart rate and/or blood pressure)</li><li>Delayed puberty</li><li>Having a low/decreased sex drive</li><li>Frequent illness (e.g., colds, flu)</li><li>Trouble staying warm</li><li>Hair loss</li><li>Digestion problems</li><li>Dental and gum problems</li></ul><h3>Psychological</h3><ul><li>Trouble focusing/concentrating</li><li>Irritability</li><li>
<a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety</a> or
<a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3983&language=English">depression</a></li><li>Disordered eating</li><li>Impaired judgment</li></ul><h2>Who is at risk for RED-S?</h2><p>RED-S can affect athletes of any gender and ability level. However, you may be at higher risk of developing RED-S if your sport or activity traditionally favours a thin or lean body type (like ballet, figure skating, swimming, gymnastics, long distance running, cycling) or requires frequent weigh-ins (like boxing, wrestling and rowing). If you are a competitive athlete, you may also be at a higher risk compared to casual athletes.</p><h2>How does RED-S affect my health and athletic performance?</h2><h3>Poor athletic performance</h3><p>Many of the symptoms of RED-S can not only impact your overall health, but directly impact your performance as an athlete. This often happens in a ‘chain reaction’, with one symptom triggering the next. Feeling tired and having weak muscles can slow you down. It can also put more strain on your heart and lungs, which are working harder to keep up with your body’s pace. A lack of proper fuel through food can make you feel irritable and unable to focus, which can lead to poor performance, increased injury and slow healing.</p><h3>Irregular/missed periods</h3><p>For people who menstruate, exercising intensely and not eating enough calories can lead to a decrease in estrogen, the hormone that helps to regulate your menstrual cycle. As a result, your periods may become irregular or stop completely. When estrogen levels are low, you can experience delayed puberty and bone loss.</p><h3>Brittle bones/low bone density</h3><p>One of the more permanent effects of RED-S can be low bone density (brittle bones). When your body does not get enough fuel in the form of food, it can cause your bones to become weak and brittle. This is a risk to people of all genders, but especially to those who menstruate, and can lead to a permanent change to your bone health as your transition into adulthood. When your bones are weak, you are more prone to stress fractures, which can impact your ability to train and compete. These injuries will also be slower to heal and more likely to happen again over time.</p><h2>How can RED-S be treated?</h2><p>Treating RED-S can be tricky to do on your own. It can be helpful to seek out help from a broad support system like your doctor, a registered dietitian, a mental health counsellor, and your family, friends, and coaches. RED-S can be treated gradually by increasing your food intake to adequately support the level of your daily physical activity or by decreasing your daily exercise to accommodate your current diet.</p><p>It is possible to be admitted to the hospital for medical or psychological complications of RED-S, with or without an eating disorder, for not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training.</p><p>Depending on your signs and symptoms and level of risk, your doctor may recommend that you stop training. Practising self care and getting enough sleep will also help in recovery.</p><h2>How can I prevent RED-S?</h2><ul><li>Think of food as fuel. Choose foods that are part of a
<a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">healthy diet</a> in quantities that are appropriate for your level of exercise, age, height, sex and body type. It can help to speak to a registered dietitian for personalized recommendations.</li><li>Choose activities that complement your natural body strengths and personal goals.</li><li>Look at the big picture. Your health is more important than competitive success and will have a greater impact on your life as you get older.</li><li>Remember that the thinnest/leanest/lightest athletes are not always the best in their sport.</li><li>Don't compare yourself to others. Your optimal weight, food intake and training routines will be unique to you and only you.</li><li>Be cautious of people who put your competitive success before your well being.</li><li>Be a role model.
<a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3774&language=English">Practise positive eating habits</a>, support others based on their talents and achievements, and shut down negative weight and body talk.</li></ul>||https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/REDS_Teen_site.jpg|| Learn about RED-S, a syndrome caused by not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of daily physical activity.||Teens|
|Talking to your friends about cancer||Talking to your friends about cancer||Talking to your friends about cancer||T||English||Oncology||Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)||NA||NA||NA||Pre-teen (9-12 years)
Teen (13-15 years)
Late Teen (16-18 years)||NA||2019-09-03T04:00:00Z||6.30000000000000||79.3000000000000||755.000000000000||Flat Content||Health A-Z||<p>It's up to you who you talk to about your cancer and what details you choose to share. Find out tips to help you talk to your friends about cancer and what you can say if they have questions.</p>||<p>Some people tell everyone they know that they have cancer. Other people tell only their closest friends. Of course it is up to you who you talk to about your cancer and what you choose to share.</p>||<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>There is no right way to tell anyone you have cancer, and you don't need to tell anyone you don't want to or share any details you are not comfortable sharing.</li><li>Staying connected with friends throughout your treatment journey can help you feel supported and less alone.</li></ul>||<h2>How should I talk to my friends about my cancer?</h2><p>You might worry how your friends are going to react or that you’ll get emotional when you talk about cancer. These worries are normal. Cancer is not an easy thing to talk about with your friends. You might find it easier to write your friends a letter or email, tell them on the phone, or tell one close friend who can help you tell other friends. There is no “best” way to tell people you have cancer. You can only do what feels best for you. Your health-care team can help you find ways to talk to friends about your cancer and your treatment.</p><p>For more information on talking to your friends about cancer, check out these tips from
<a target="_blank" href="https://www.canteen.org.au/youth-cancer/treatment/relationships/friends/"> CanTeen</a>, an Australian organization for teens living with cancer. </p><h2>How will my friends respond?</h2><p>When you talk to your friends about your cancer, they may not react the way you hoped or thought they would. Their reaction may make you feel angry or disappointed, or make you feel like they don’t understand what you are going through. Often peoples’ first reaction to new or unexpected information is not how they would normally react to other news. They may need time to process this information, just as you first did.</p><p>On the other hand, their reaction might be surprisingly good! You might be surprised by how much they understand and how much better you feel knowing you still have their friendship. It may seem unfair on top of everything else you’re dealing with right now, but you will likely need to help your friends understand your cancer and how cancer and treatment are affecting you. Remember that before you had cancer, you didn’t understand it either. </p><h2>What can I say to my friends?</h2><p>Even though it might take some extra effort at first, it will be worth it to stay close to your friends through the challenges cancer brings. Try some of these tips to help your friends understand what you’re going through and to help them be the friends you need them to be.</p><ul><li>Tell your friends a few facts about your cancer and your treatment to help them understand what you are going through.</li><li>Let your friends know that you’re still the same person you always were and would like to be treated that way.</li><li>Give your friends ideas of what they can do to support you. Remember, they are probably confused and may not know how to help you. </li><li>When you feel ready to answer friends’ questions, let them know. You can say something like, “I can tell you about my cancer if you want…” And when you don’t feel like talking about cancer, let them know that too.</li><li>Stay in contact with your friends though texts, phone calls, emails, tweets, or any way you feel comfortable. You may need to be the one to contact your friends, since they might be afraid to bother you, especially if you’re in the hospital.</li><li>If you find it difficult to explain cancer and treatment to your friends, give them a link to a website that will help them understand what cancer is and how to support you through it.</li></ul><h2>Friendships are important</h2><p>Your friendships may change throughout your treatment journey. Some friends will be amazing and supportive, and others may become more distant. You might also make new friends with other teens who are going through similar experiences. At this difficult time in your life, try to stay connected to those people who offer you support and help you feel good. Cancer is too much for one person to deal with alone. Remember that the more you can be open with your friends, the more chances they have to understand what you are going through, and to be supportive and accepting.</p><p>Check out any teen support groups or resources that your hospital provides. These can help you make friends with people who understand what you’re going through.</p><p>Here are some links that you could share with your friends to help them understand:</p><ul><li>
<a href="https://www.canteen.org.au/young-people/my-friend-is-affected-by-cancer/">CanTeen: My friend is affected by cancer</a><br></li><li>
<a href="https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/young-adults-and-teenagers/cancer-and-relationships/cancer-and-friendships">Cancer.Net: Cancer and Friendships</a></li></ul>||https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Talking_to_your_friends_about_cancer.jpg|| It's up to you who you talk to about your cancer and what details you choose to share. Find tips to help you talk to your friends. ||Teens|
|What to know about cyberbullying||What to know about cyberbullying||What to know about cyberbullying||W||English||Adolescent;Developmental||Teen (13-18 years)||NA||NA||Healthy living and prevention||Teen (13-18 years)||NA||2022-05-16T04:00:00Z||Flat Content||Health A-Z||<p>Cyberbullying is a type of bullying that uses the internet, texting and social media. Learn about what cyberbullying looks like and what you can do about it.</p>||<h2>What is cyberbullying?</h2><p>Cyberbullying is the use of the internet, texting, and social media to intimidate, spread rumours, put down or make fun of someone. Cyberbullying can include:</p><ul><li>Sending someone threatening messages</li><li>Posting or sharing personal information without permission</li><li>Taking a photo of someone or sharing photos of a person without their permission</li><li>Posting gossip or mean messages on social media</li><li>Hacking into someone’s email or social media and sending messages as that person</li><li>Creating a website or social media account to make fun of someone</li><li>Creating a fake social media account pretending to be someone else and making fun of them</li><li>Leaving people out of instant messaging or email contact lists on purpose</li></ul><p>Cyberbullying doesn’t stop at school; it can reach you 24 hours a day, at home, on the weekends, and on vacation. </p><p>Because it’s easy to create anonymous or fake accounts online, you may not even know who’s cyberbullying you. Those who cyberbully also can’t immediately see your reaction, so they might not feel bad about cyberbullying and continue to become more aggressive.</p>||<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Cyberbullying uses the internet, texting, and social media to bully others.</li><li>Cyberbullying can include sending threatening messages, sharing personal information or images without permission, and posting rumours or mean messages online.</li><li>Keep yourself safe online by not sharing passwords, don’t share your personal information or anyone else’s, and never send nude photos of yourself or anyone else.</li><li>Talk to an adult you trust and who can help you if you are being cyberbullied. If you have been threatened or a crime has been committed, call the police.</li></ul>||<h2>What can I do about cyberbullying?</h2><p>You may feel like you can’t do anything to stop cyberbullying if you or someone you know is being harassed, or if you know someone who is a cyberbully. But there are things you can do to keep yourself and others safe:</p><ul><li>Treat people online the way you would treat them in person. If you wouldn’t say something directly to someone’s face, don’t leave it as a comment on their social media or text it to them. Always think about whether the content is hurtful or damaging before sending an email, message or photo.</li><li>Don’t share passwords with anyone other than a trusted adult (e.g., your parents or a caregiver).</li><li>Don’t share your own personal information or anyone else’s online.</li><li>Never send nude photos of yourself or anyone else to anyone. If you or the person in the photos are under the age of 18, as you could be charged with distributing child pornography.</li><li>Talk to an adult you trust (parent, teacher, coach, guidance counsellor). They may be able to give you advice on how to deal with a cyberbully, or they may be able to step in to help protect you.</li><li>Stand up for yourself or someone else you see being cyberbullied without being aggressive and without cyberbullying back. Let the person know that what they’re doing is not OK and you won’t forward or respond to the messages.</li><li>If you or someone else is being cyberbullied, make a copy of the message before you delete it (e.g., take a screenshot). You can also report harassment or inappropriate messages on most social media sites and apps. Most social media sites, internet providers and cell phone service providers have policies against bullying and may be able to do something about it if you report the abuse.</li><li>Call the police if you have been threatened or if a crime has been committed. If someone has assaulted you or has threatened to hurt you, that’s a crime and you should call the police to intervene.</li></ul><p>Take care of your mental health. If you are experiencing stress, anxiety, depression or other mental health issues, talk to a trusted adult or health-care provider. You can also take a look at these mental health resources to find ways to help you cope: <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/mentalhealth">www.teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/mentalhealth</a></p>||<p>For more information on cyberbullying, visit
<a href="https://www.prevnet.ca/cyber-bullying/teens">www.prevnet.ca/cyber-bullying/teens</a>.</p>||https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Cyberbullying_teen.jpg|| Cyberbullying is a type of bullying that uses the internet, texting and social media. Learn how teens can stay safe online. ||Teens|